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Coffee, a magic word with a magic power. It can be used as a great medicine to help patients, and it can be taken as a popular drink all over the world. People love coffee, need coffee and enjoy coffee. Caffeinated drinks are large consumed by people on regular basis. It has become an international popular drink for almost everybody. Coffee is so important to our daily lives that coffee has become as part of their culture in some countries. In fact, some people consider it as a critical part of their day, and even some people are taking it as a sign of fashion.
However, the fact that everyone likes coffee does not means everyone is fit to drink coffee. Whether it is good coffee or bad depends on a person’s situation or condition. Many believe that moderate use of coffee is harmless to the human body, and it can even help us work faster with fewer errors. According to researcher Ruxton, Moderate drinking could dramatically reduce the risk of MI (myocardial infarction), mortality as well as plasma cholesterol (41). However, the coffee consumption by pregnant women does appear to increase the stillbirth rate, and decreases the fetal birth rate and fetal heart rate. Furthermore, increasing coffee consumption affects people’s mental development and behavior in both good and bad way. Finally, this article discusses both the benefits and risks of regular coffee consumption. Also, different population groups are considered, including older men and women, pregnant women and others.
According to Linda Nolan, caffeine is a kind of chemical drug which shares the same pharmacological actions of therapeutic interest with theophylline and theobromine. These acts on kidneys relax the smooth muscles around them; stimulate cardiac muscles; and stimulate the central nervous system (124). According to researchers Etherton and Kochar (1993), the typical cup of coffee contains 85 to 100mg caffeine (175ml or 6oz) and 65 mg of caffeine in a cup of instant coffee. By comparison, there is 40 mg of caffeine in a 12oz cup of tea, and 45 mg caffeine in the same size of soft drink (318). However, the effects of caffeine on individuals depends on how much coffee they consume, and how of and how long are they consume it.
According to CBC news post on October 14th 2008(our growing appetite for a boost), 80 percent of us include coffee as part of our daily ritual, and also, every person, including man, woman and child, will consume 70 milligrams of caffeine every day, which means a 200ml cup of coffee (1). Even though coffee is a basic drink in our lives, a cup of is coffee not good for everyone.
Linda Nolan observes that caffeine is a powerful central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, and caffeine can over-excited all portions of the cortex (124). Wilson (as cited in Nolan, 2001) study proved that after taking caffeine, people appear more intelligent and more easily come up with perfect ideas. In addition, Wilson (as cited in Nolan, 2001) found that people after taking caffeine had increased their motor activity --- they can work faster with less time and fewer errors (125).
According to Nicholas, french researchers spent over four years studying more than 7000 men and women whose average age was 74. Scientists recorded the education information, income, depression and alcohol with tobacco uses as the controlling variables. The result shows that women who consumed three cups of coffee per day were one-third less likely to have significant decline in verbal skills than those people who drink less than one cup(F6). Meanwhile, Hamel, A., (2009) shows the same result to us that women aged 65 who drink three or more cups of coffee a day could help them slow the rate of verbal skill decline and also, 70% of women aged 85 who drink three or more cups a day were found to be less likely to suffer from reduced mental clarity than women who drank less than one cup a day (1). In other words, drinking coffee constantly could help the elder women maintain mental sharpness; however, there appears no effect among men with caffeine consumption.
Nevertheless, do not rush into the coffee store. The pharmacologic effects of caffeine cannot benefit for everyone. As we many know, caffeine could make people feel anxiety depression and panic disorder worse after drinking. Overtake of coffee could account as a potential risk for disrupting sleep. In Ruxton’s states, 400mg of caffeine seems to be the upper limit for people consuming coffee safely (42). A. Smith() also points out to us that an excessive amount of caffeine may cause individuals to become anxious, and some patients with anxiety disorders reported that consumption of caffeine did attribute to their problems (1224). Overall, several scientists A. Smith, Loke et al(1985) and Sicard et al.(1996) have stated that high amounts of caffeine consumption (600mg) could cause the increased anxiety (1224).
Gardner et al (2007) reviewed 20 studies published from 1990 to 2004 and found that regular tea and coffee consumption could reduce mortality, lower the risk of MI and plasma cholesterol. Also more than 90000 patients from three cohort studies reported four cups of caffeine beverages per day (including tea, coffee, cola and energy drinks etc.) could lower the risk of CVD(death from cardiovascular diseases)(42). In addition, 26500 middle-aged smokers have been involved in a study and proved that men who drank more than two cups of coffee a day have a 21% lower risk of having a stroke(43).
Spanish researchers(no author here) did a large investigation at Harvard Medical School, and they used data from 86214 women in the Nurses’ Health Study and 41736 men in the Health Professional Follow-up Study. The researchers wanted to explore the relation between coffee consumption and all the causes of CVD, cancer, and other factors. The experiment was taken over a period of 24 years for the women and 18 years for the men. The study results show that a woman who drinks at least five to seven cups per week had a lower death rate (fewer deaths from CVD). Also, there is a lower risk of death from chronic liver diseases and diabetes for coffee drinkers(6).
Well, nothing comes perfect in this world. Researchers at Creighton University in Omaha indicate that too much intake of caffeinated products may accelerate bone loss for women in postmenopause. The research was done among 96 healthy women between 60’s and 70’s who consume more than 300 milligrams of caffeine daily. Researchers found those women who were overtaking caffeine lost more bone from their spines than women consuming less during three periods. In addition, those effects might be more obvious for women carrying a certain type of genes.(5)
Coffee and pregnancy
According to Ruxton, the Food Standards Agency (FSA 2008) amended the recommendation for pregnant women drinking coffee--the advice reduced from 300mg to 200mg per day (44). From common sense, coffee is harmful for an unborn baby, so pregnant women should not drinking coffee during her pregnancy period. However, just few of those pregnant women knows how harmful it would be if they keep drinking coffee during pregnancy. As Wisborg, K., Kesmodel, U., et al. (2003) claims that coffee consumption by pregnant women has a significant relationship with stillbirth. Researchers had analyzed 18400 pregnant women’s coffee consumption and birth outcomes. They realized that the women who drink four to seven cups of coffee daily had an 80% increase stillbirth rate than women who do not drink at all(1). Furthermore, Bodil Hammer Bech, et al (2005) made several studies and confirmed that “Consumption of coffee during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of fetal death, especially losses occurring after 20 completed weeks of gestation” (985).
After so much talking about death factors and diseases caused by drinking coffee, Steinmehl, Eric (2004) gives us an interesting opinion that coffee could help people to get a baby. Brazilian researchers recently said that from the 750 sperm samples, people who drink coffee have the most active sperm than others, which means caffeine in coffee could stimulate sperm (51). Among that, Steinmehl, Eric (2004) mentioned Fabio Pasqualotto, M.D., ph.D, (the person who presented the research at a recent conference of American Society for Reproductive Medicine) said, “Poor sperm motility is the culprit for as many as 30 percent of America’s 6 million couples who are unable to conceive.” In that way, whether coffee can meet the needs for infertile people or not is still a disputed topic for us; however, this news still can be taken as a possible suggestion for some of the infertile couples. (51)
In conclusion, there are plenty of reasons for us to think about when deciding if we should drink coffee or not, and obviously the effects of coffee are different from person to person. We cannot deny that, coffee does play an essential role in the daily lives. However over consuming of coffee is harmful. Refers to your foregoes discussion, in this essay I have some pounded cut that moderation taking(less than three cups a day) or drinking more decaffeinated coffee and filter-brewed coffee instead. All in all, there are still many concerns from both sides for us need to be addressed. Before someone could stand up and definitely tell us it is right or wrong to drink coffee, the only thing we can do for now is wait for our scientists to answer our questions.