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Coffee



Coffee, a magic word with a magic power. It can be used as a great medicine to help patients, and it can be taken as a popular drink all over the world. People love coffee, need coffee and enjoy coffee. Caffeinated drinks are large consumed by people on regular basis. It has become an international popular drink for almost everybody. Coffee is so important to our daily lives that coffee has become as part of their culture in some countries. In fact, some people consider it as a critical part of their day, and even some people are taking it as a sign of fashion.

However, the fact that everyone likes coffee does not means everyone is fit to drink coffee. Whether it is good coffee or bad depends on a person’s situation or condition. Many believe that moderate use of coffee is harmless to the human body, and it can even help us work faster with fewer errors. According to researcher Ruxton, Moderate drinking could dramatically reduce the risk of MI (myocardial infarction), mortality as well as plasma cholesterol (41). However, the coffee consumption by pregnant women does appear to increase the stillbirth rate, and decreases the fetal birth rate and fetal heart rate. Furthermore, increasing coffee consumption affects people’s mental development and behavior in both good and bad way. Finally, this article discusses both the benefits and risks of regular coffee consumption. Also, different population groups are considered, including older men and women, pregnant women and others.

Caffeine

According to Linda Nolan, caffeine is a kind of chemical drug which shares the same pharmacological actions of therapeutic interest with theophylline and theobromine. These acts on kidneys relax the smooth muscles around them; stimulate cardiac muscles; and stimulate the central nervous system (124). According to researchers Etherton and Kochar (1993), the typical cup of coffee contains 85 to 100mg caffeine (175ml or 6oz) and 65 mg of caffeine in a cup of instant coffee. By comparison, there is 40 mg of caffeine in a 12oz cup of tea, and 45 mg caffeine in the same size of soft drink (318). However, the effects of caffeine on individuals depends on how much coffee they consume, and how of and how long are they consume it.

According to CBC news post on October 14th 2008(our growing appetite for a boost), 80 percent of us include coffee as part of our daily ritual, and also, every person, including man, woman and child, will consume 70 milligrams of caffeine every day, which means a 200ml cup of coffee (1). Even though coffee is a basic drink in our lives, a cup of is coffee not good for everyone.

Pharmacologic effects

Linda Nolan observes that caffeine is a powerful central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, and caffeine can over-excited all portions of the cortex (124). Wilson (as cited in Nolan, 2001) study proved that after taking caffeine, people appear more intelligent and more easily come up with perfect ideas. In addition, Wilson (as cited in Nolan, 2001) found that people after taking caffeine had increased their motor activity --- they can work faster with less time and fewer errors (125).

According to Nicholas, french researchers spent over four years studying more than 7000 men and women whose average age was 74. Scientists recorded the education information, income, depression and alcohol with tobacco uses as the controlling variables. The result shows that women who consumed three cups of coffee per day were one-third less likely to have significant decline in verbal skills than those people who drink less than one cup(F6). Meanwhile, Hamel, A., (2009) shows the same result to us that women aged 65 who drink three or more cups of coffee a day could help them slow the rate of verbal skill decline and also, 70% of women aged 85 who drink three or more cups a day were found to be less likely to suffer from reduced mental clarity than women who drank less than one cup a day (1). In other words, drinking coffee constantly could help the elder women maintain mental sharpness; however, there appears no effect among men with caffeine consumption.

Nevertheless, do not rush into the coffee store. The pharmacologic effects of caffeine cannot benefit for everyone. As we many know, caffeine could make people feel anxiety depression and panic disorder worse after drinking. Overtake of coffee could account as a potential risk for disrupting sleep. In Ruxton’s states, 400mg of caffeine seems to be the upper limit for people consuming coffee safely (42). A. Smith() also points out to us that an excessive amount of caffeine may cause individuals to become anxious, and some patients with anxiety disorders reported that consumption of caffeine did attribute to their problems (1224). Overall, several scientists A. Smith, Loke et al(1985) and Sicard et al.(1996) have stated that high amounts of caffeine consumption (600mg) could cause the increased anxiety (1224).

Physical performance

Gardner et al (2007) reviewed 20 studies published from 1990 to 2004 and found that regular tea and coffee consumption could reduce mortality, lower the risk of MI and plasma cholesterol. Also more than 90000 patients from three cohort studies reported four cups of caffeine beverages per day (including tea, coffee, cola and energy drinks etc.) could lower the risk of CVD(death from cardiovascular diseases)(42). In addition, 26500 middle-aged smokers have been involved in a study and proved that men who drank more than two cups of coffee a day have a 21% lower risk of having a stroke(43).

Spanish researchers(no author here) did a large investigation at Harvard Medical School, and they used data from 86214 women in the Nurses’ Health Study and 41736 men in the Health Professional Follow-up Study. The researchers wanted to explore the relation between coffee consumption and all the causes of CVD, cancer, and other factors. The experiment was taken over a period of 24 years for the women and 18 years for the men. The study results show that a woman who drinks at least five to seven cups per week had a lower death rate (fewer deaths from CVD). Also, there is a lower risk of death from chronic liver diseases and diabetes for coffee drinkers(6).

Well, nothing comes perfect in this world. Researchers at Creighton University in Omaha indicate that too much intake of caffeinated products may accelerate bone loss for women in postmenopause. The research was done among 96 healthy women between 60’s and 70’s who consume more than 300 milligrams of caffeine daily. Researchers found those women who were overtaking caffeine lost more bone from their spines than women consuming less during three periods. In addition, those effects might be more obvious for women carrying a certain type of genes.(5)

Coffee and pregnancy

According to Ruxton, the Food Standards Agency (FSA 2008) amended the recommendation for pregnant women drinking coffee--the advice reduced from 300mg to 200mg per day (44). From common sense, coffee is harmful for an unborn baby, so pregnant women should not drinking coffee during her pregnancy period. However, just few of those pregnant women knows how harmful it would be if they keep drinking coffee during pregnancy. As Wisborg, K., Kesmodel, U., et al. (2003) claims that coffee consumption by pregnant women has a significant relationship with stillbirth. Researchers had analyzed 18400 pregnant women’s coffee consumption and birth outcomes. They realized that the women who drink four to seven cups of coffee daily had an 80% increase stillbirth rate than women who do not drink at all(1). Furthermore, Bodil Hammer Bech, et al (2005) made several studies and confirmed that “Consumption of coffee during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of fetal death, especially losses occurring after 20 completed weeks of gestation” (985).

After so much talking about death factors and diseases caused by drinking coffee, Steinmehl, Eric (2004) gives us an interesting opinion that coffee could help people to get a baby. Brazilian researchers recently said that from the 750 sperm samples, people who drink coffee have the most active sperm than others, which means caffeine in coffee could stimulate sperm (51). Among that, Steinmehl, Eric (2004) mentioned Fabio Pasqualotto, M.D., ph.D, (the person who presented the research at a recent conference of American Society for Reproductive Medicine) said, “Poor sperm motility is the culprit for as many as 30 percent of America’s 6 million couples who are unable to conceive.” In that way, whether coffee can meet the needs for infertile people or not is still a disputed topic for us; however, this news still can be taken as a possible suggestion for some of the infertile couples. (51)

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are plenty of reasons for us to think about when deciding if we should drink coffee or not, and obviously the effects of coffee are different from person to person. We cannot deny that, coffee does play an essential role in the daily lives. However over consuming of coffee is harmful. Refers to your foregoes discussion, in this essay I have some pounded cut that moderation taking(less than three cups a day) or drinking more decaffeinated coffee and filter-brewed coffee instead. All in all, there are still many concerns from both sides for us need to be addressed. Before someone could stand up and definitely tell us it is right or wrong to drink coffee, the only thing we can do for now is wait for our scientists to answer our questions.


Submitted by: CONNIE
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May,17 2011

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The Essay Judge
+17

Thank you for submitting this essay. It seems to be well researched and while there are a few problems of idiomatic expression, the writing is generally fine. My comments will focus on language problems, and I’ll conclude with a few general comments. > indicates quotations from your essay; EJ: indicates my comments.


>Coffee, a magic word with a magic power. It can be used as a great medicine to help patients, and it can be taken as a popular drink all over the world.

EJ: “powerful” is a greater word than great here. I wonder if you mean “can be”; is there a reson, especially in the second instance, you don’t say “is”?


>People love coffee, need coffee and enjoy coffee.
EJ: Nicely said. In American English, there would normally be a comma after the second ‘coffee’; not so in, you know, English English.

>Caffeinated drinks are large consumed by people on regular basis.
EJ: “large”: it should be “largely” and then, poor word, it should be deleted as unnecessary.

> It has become an international popular drink for almost everybody.
EJ: The last three words don’t add much to “popular”; internationally


>Coffee is so important to our daily lives that coffee has become as part of their culture in some countries.
EJ: ‘a’ for ‘as’. “their” has no referent, and can in any case be deleted

>In fact, some people consider it as a critical part of their day, and even some people are taking it as a sign of fashion.
EJ: “take” for “are taking” but the meaning of “take it as a sign of fashion” needs clarification

>However, the fact that everyone likes coffee does not means everyone is fit to drink coffee. Whether it is good coffee or bad depends on a person’s situation or condition.
EJ: mean for means; should for ‘is fit to’; ‘good coffee or bad’ is ambiguous, so needs to be rephrased.

>However, the coffee consumption by pregnant women ...and bad way
EJ: delete first ‘the’. ‘ways’ for ‘way’

> Finally, this article discusses both the benefits and risks of regular coffee consumption. Also, different population groups are considered, including older men and women, pregnant women and others.
EJ: You might want to integrate these two points into a single sentence, otherwise it appears that the second sentence makes a lie of the ‘finally’.


Caffeine

According to Linda Nolan, caffeine is a kind of chemical drug which shares the same pharmacological actions of therapeutic interest with theophylline and theobromine. EJ: The syntax is a bit awkward here, though it sounds just like what Linda Nolan would have said. (But if it really is just what she says, then it should be in quotation marks.)


>These acts on kidneys relax the smooth muscles around them;
EJ: this needs revision; perhaps you mean “actions’ for “acts”.

>However, the effects of caffeine on individuals depends on how much coffee they consume, and how of and how long are they consume it.
EJ: “However” seems wrong here. What you want is a word or phrase that communicates the fact that what you just said is relevant because the effects of caffeine depend on the amount of consumption. You could say, “That’s relevant because...”


>According to CBC news post on October 14th 2008(our growing appetite for a boost), 80 percent of us include coffee as part of our daily ritual, and also, every person, including man, woman and child, will consume 70 milligrams of caffeine every day, which means a 200ml cup of coffee (1).
EJ: The CBC post title should be capitalized and in quotation marks. The second part of the sentence seems odd, if only because my child, as far as I know, doesn’t consume any caffeine. Maybe he’s secretly downing cokes without telling me. Maybe CBC were just taking the average.


>caffeine can over-excited all portions of the cortex (124).
EJ: verb form

>Wilson (as cited in Nolan, 2001) study proved
EJ: Wilson’s study?

>that after taking caffeine, people appear more intelligent and more easily come up with perfect ideas. In addition, Wilson (as cited in Nolan, 2001) found that people after taking caffeine had increased their motor activity
EJ: ‘good’ for ‘perfect’? delete ‘their’



>In other words, drinking coffee constantly could help the elder women maintain mental sharpness; however, there appears no effect among men with caffeine consumption.
EJ: Two points: First, no ‘the’ before ‘elder women’; Second, that seems grossly unfair to men.

>Nevertheless, do not rush into the coffee store.
EJ: It’s a good idea to put in some kind of comment like this as a transition, but since this is a very formal, academic research paper, you might want something less conversational. Even “people should not rush to the coffee store” comes off better.

>The pharmacologic effects of caffeine cannot benefit for everyone.
EJ: no prepostion with ‘benefit’, so drop the ‘for.’

>As we many know, caffeine could make people feel anxiety depression and panic disorder worse after drinking.
EJ: this sentence needs revision. Commas, for example. “feel greater anxiety” is preferable to “feel anxiety … worse”


>Overtake of coffee could account as a potential risk for disrupting sleep.
EJ: Overconsumption for overtake; ‘be’ for ‘account as’


>In Ruxton’s states,
EJ: Ruxton states that?


>Well, nothing comes perfect in this world.
EJ: Again, good idea to have this kind of transitional phrase, but the expression is a bit awkward, and I’d suggest aiming for something more formal anyway.

>Researchers found those women who were overtaking EJ: consuming too much?

>From common sense, coffee is harmful for an unborn baby, so pregnant women should not drinking coffee during her pregnancy period.
EJ: It’s unclear why you are introducing a claim based on “common sense’ when you were doing so well with research-based evidence. Common sense is commonly wrong.


>However, just few of those pregnant women knows how harmful it would be if they keep drinking coffee during pregnancy.
EJ:However, few pregnant women know ...kept

>As Wisborg, K., Kesmodel, U., et al. (2003) claims that
EJ: As W...K...et al. claim, coffee consumption...

>coffee consumption by pregnant women has a significant relationship with stillbirth.
EJ: Maybe it’s an accepted phrase but “has a significant relationship with” sounds odd here. I’d have said “is correlated with”

>people who drink coffee have the most active sperm than others,
EJ: have more active

> Among that,
EJ: meaning unclear
>In that way
EJ: meaning unclear

>possible suggestion for some of the infertile couples. (51)
EJ: or for further research?

Conclusion

>In conclusion,
EJ: not needed, especially since you’ve given the section the title “conclusion”

>there are plenty of reasons for us to think about when deciding if we should drink coffee or not
EJ: factors for reasons

>We cannot deny that, coffee does play an essential role in the daily lives.
EJ: drop the comma; in our daily lives; I think “essential role” might be overstating the case

> However over consuming of coffee is harmful.
EJ: However, overconsumption of coffee is harmful.


>Refers to your foregoes discussion, in this essay I have some pounded cut that moderation taking(less than three cups a day) or drinking more decaffeinated coffee and filter-brewed coffee instead.
EJ: No idea what you’re saying here. Sorry!



> All in all, there are still many concerns from both sides for us need to be addressed. Before someone could stand up and definitely tell us it is right or wrong to drink coffee, the only thing we can do for now is wait for our scientists to answer our questions.

EJ: Okay, this is my final comment, and it has to do primarily with this conclusion. I think you have done a lot of good work establishing that research is inconclusive regarding the benefit of coffee. I think you should probably put it that way. More importantly, I think all of that good work could be put to much better use. That is to say, given the strengths of the rest of the rest of the paper, the conclusion seems a bit weak to me. You have amassed a lot of concrete information about the possible benefits of coffee consumption, and the possible side-effects, but the conclusion doesn’t do a very good job of summarizing that for me. Having read your essay, I think I should be careful if I’m pregnant; and careful if I’m old and worried about my bones; I should be an eager consumer if I want to appear smart, but no so eager if I’m a man, or if I’m concerned about anxiety. That’s the kind of summary I was expecting. There’s probably more to be said on the basis of the research you have reviewed, but you see, I hope, my point. Instead of summarizing the relevant data, you’ve kind of given up and said we can’t decide one way or the other and have to wait for more evidence. But the point of the research is to give us some information that allows us to make the best informed decision we can right now. And your essay, I think, should help us do that.

Final point. I don’t know whether it falls under the scope of your assignment, but I think it is possible for you to at least comment on the methodology and governing assumptions of some of the research studies you have discussed here. You could also think about commenting on or clarifying how important particular research studies are. If one study shows an increased risk of side-effect X for instance, the importance of the finding doesn’t just depend on how much the risk is increased, but also on the size of the risk in the first place. If drinking coffee increases the risk of a negative outcome by 80%, that sounds bad, but if the chances of the same negative outcome without coffee were negligible to begin with, then it’s not so bad. So I want to know, in this case, what the original risk was. Or, to take another example, to write a research paper on the benefits of coffee consumption for mental acuity, I need only show a statistically significant result (which can be a very small increase); but if I’m thinking about increasing my coffee consumption for the sake of getting smarter, then I’d like to know just how much it’s going to help.

Anyway, as I say, I don’t know how much of that kind of analysis is relevant to your assignment, so I’ll stop, and wish you best of luck with your revision. I’ll just go back to my coffee!
May,17 2011

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